T-cell immunotherapy consists of T-cell receptor (TCR), tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL), and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. TCR is an integral membrane protein that is activated by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the presence of an antigen. Upon activation, it initiates T-cell response toward the antigen. The activation of TCR is responsible for T-cell proliferation, development, and activation.
According to the research findings, majority of T- cell immunotherapies in the pipeline are being developed to be administered by intravenous route. It has been observed that intravenous route of medication is convenient and provides improved patient’s compliance. The administration of therapeutics through intravenous route has shown promising results in clinical studies.
The companies are actively seeking designation grant to accelerate the process of development. For instance, in April 2017, the USFDA granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation to CTL019 (Novartis AG), which is an investigational CAR T-cell therapy for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed and refractory (r/r) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Moreover, Celgene Corporation’s bb2121 was granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation by the USFDA for the treatment of patients with r/r multiple myeloma (MM).
Currently Kymriah, Yescarta, Keytruda, Durvalumab, and Actmera are some of the marketed drugs. With the emergence of late- and mid-stage pipeline products in the market, the overall T-cell immunotherapy market is expected to grow significantly in the upcoming years.
Novartis AG, Kite Pharma Inc., F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., GlaxoSmithKline plc, Iovance Biotherapeutics Inc., Celgene Corporation, AstraZeneca PLC, Merck & Co. Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Pfizer Inc., Mustang Bio Inc., Horizon Discovery Group plc, Celyad SA, and Nanjing Legend Biotechnology Co. Ltd. are some of the key players involved in the development of T-cell immunotherapies.